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Medical Topics

Raynaud’s Disease

Raynaud’s phenomenon is characterized by paroxysmal reversible episodes of vasospam , usually involving peripheral small vessela of the fingers or toes and resulting in a triple-colour chage starting with pallor and followed by cyanosis and erythema 
( Linnemann B , Erbe M 2015 )

How common –Described in 1862 by Maurice Raynaud ,

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia ( BPH )

Benign prostatic hyperplasia ( BPH ) is a histologic diagnosis that refers the proliferation of smooth muscle and epithelial cell within the prostate transition zone
 ( American Urological Association 2010 ).

The exact etiology is unknown , one of the proposed theories is reawakening on adulthood of embryonic induction processes

The enlarged gland leads to LUTS ( Lower urinary tract symptoms ) by two mechanisms-Direct bladder outlet obstruction
 ( BOO ) from enlarged tissue –


Hirsutism is defined as the presence of excessive terminal hair in androgen-sensitive
 areas of the female body , it is one of the most common disorders in women during the reproductive age ( H.F Escober-Morreale et al 2012 )

How common –the prevalence of hirsutism is about 10 % in most populations a common reason for presentation in dermatology OP’s for cosmetic reasons Far-East Asian women suffer less frequently

Causes –Number of conditions which can lead to hirsutism is extensive ,

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome ( IBS ) is a functional disorder in which abdominal pain or discomfort is associated with defecation and/or a change in bowel habit. Sensations of discomfort ( bloating ) , distension, and disordered defecation are commonly associated features. In some languages, the words ” bloating ” and distension ” may be represented by the same term ( WHO Global Guidelines IBS a Global Perspective 2015 )

Current diagnostic criteria of IBS is based on Rome IV 
( Rome III was updated in 2016 ) Most important change is the elimination of the word ”

Coeliac Disease

Coeliac Disease ( CD ) is an immune-mediated intestinal enteropathy that is triggered by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals ( The Oslo definition for coeliac disease and related terms Jonas F Ludvigsson et al )

Dietary gluten is a storage protein found in wheat , rye and barley and is widely used in food processing to give dough the desired baking properties,


Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory immune-mediated disease that predominantly affects the skin and joints ( SIGN 2010 )

How common In the Europe and the US the estimated prevalence is 1-3 % A paper in the Canadian Family Physician reports a prevalence of 1.7 % in Canada Parisi et al 2013 report a prevalence of 1.3 % in the UK population Psoriasis can start at any age but a bimodal pattern has been noted at 16-22 and 57-60 yrs It affects both the sexes equally
It us uncommon in children ( 0.71 % ) and the majority of cases occur before the age of 35 yrs Psoriasis is more common in white people compared to other ethnicity About 20 % of people who have psoriasis may also have psoriatic arthritis.

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ) involves a group of symptoms experienced after exposure to a potentially traumatic event that may include re-experiencing the event ; avoiding situations that trigger memories of the event ; experiencing negative feelings and beliefs ; and/ or experiencing feelings of hype-arousal such as irritability , agitation , 
anger of being on the alert ( American Psychiatric Association 2013 ).

Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cardinal symptoms of 
stiffness , resting tremor , slowness ( bradykinesia ) and reduction of movement 
( hypokinesia ) Clarke CE BMJ 2007 

Parkinsonism describes the motor features of PD and Parkinson’s disease is the most 
common cause of Parkinsonism. 

PD can also be divided into two types based on origin (1 ) Primary or Idiopathic (2) secondary or acquired where the disease is linked to various offending agents such as drugs ,

Pre-menstrual Syndrome

Premenstrual Syndrome is a combination of physical and emotional disturbances that occur after a woman ovulates and ends with menstruation ” ( Khajehei M 2015 )

” PMS can be broadly defined as any constellation of psychological and
 physical symptoms that recur regularly in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle , remit for atleast one week in the follicular phase and cause distress 
and functional impairment ”

Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis is an acquired chronic immune mediated inflammatory condition
 of the central nervous system ( CNS ) , affecting both the brain and 
the spinal cord ( NICE 2015 ).

 MS ( RRMS )-Most common subtype 
( 80 to 90 % ) where periods of stability ( remission ) are followed by episodes when there are exacerbation of symptoms ( relapses )

CNS repair and use of neurological reserves can remodel and compensate the damage to some extent.