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Medical Topics

Essential Tremor

Essential tremor is chronic progressive neurological disease ( or perhaps family of diseases ) whose primary clinical feature is kinetic tremor of upper limbs , voice , head , face , chin , legs or a combination of these symptoms

A new term ET- Plus was coined in 2018 and classifies ET into two groups
 individuals with primary feature of ET –

Temporomandibular Disorders ( TMD )

TMDs-regarded as a group of heterogeneous musculoskeletal & neuromuscular pain conditions , they can be best described as ” Temporomandibular disorders
 ( TMD ) is an umbrella term for pain and dysfunction involving the masticatory muscles and temporomandibular joints ( TMJs )- Thomas List et al Cephalalgia 2017


Literature quotes a wide variability in the prevalence of TMD Most papers report a lower number of 5 % ,

Kidney stones

Kidney stones are an aggregation of crystalline structures amalgamated with
 proteins , that build up in the nephrons of the kidney.


Renal calculi means kidney stones and having a stone in any location of the urinary tract is called urolthiasis Third most common disorder of the renal tract ( after UTI and prostate problems ) The problem is increasing globally ( both developed and developing world ) and now it is thought that about 12 % of the world population will suffer with urolithiasis at some point of their life Geographic ,

Pyloric Stenosis

Pyloric stenosis ( also known as Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis IHPS ) happens due to marked hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the circular and longitudinal muscles leading to gastric outlet obstruction in infants


IHPS is the most common cause of gastric outlet obstruction in the 2-12 week age group requiring surgery Described for the 1st time by Harold Hirschsprung in 1888 who believed that the condition was congenital IHPS is the most common gastrointestinal disease of the newborn Seen more commonly in white males ( 4 : 1 M/F ratio )- seen less commonly in Indian ,

Pityriasis Rosea

Pityriasis rosea ( PR ) is an acute , benign , self limiting papulosquamous 
exanthem of an unknown etiology


First described by Gilbert in 1860 Pityriasis means rose colured scale Also known as pityriasis circinata , roseola annulata and herpes tonsurans maculosus Happens worldwide with no genetic or racial predisposition Most common in people aged 10-35 yrs Seen rarely in children <

Pulmonary Embolism

Pulmonary embolus ( PE ) happens when thrombus migrates from the venous circulation to the pulmonary vasculature and lodges in the pulmonary arterial system ( Jan Belohlavek et al 2013 )


PE is the most dangerous form of venous thromboembolism ( VTE ) Venous thromboembolism ( includes DVT & PE ) affects 5 % of the population in their lifetime Seen worldwide but papers quote a lower incidence in Asians and Native Americans in comparison to Whites and African-Americans PE is the third most common cause of CV death ( after CAD and stroke ) but has lacked behind in public awareness for e.g in comparison to other health conditions as ACS and stroke European guidelines report annual incidence rates of 0.5 to 1.0 per 1000 inhabitants It is thought that the actual figures may be higher as 40 % to 50 % of patients with DVT can develop silent PEs Incidence increases with age and is highest among individuals 70-80 yrs of age ( possibly due to reduced mobility and increased comorbidity ) It is estimated that most deaths from VTE happen in hospital setting ( for e.g post-operative ,

Ulcerative Colitis

Ulcerative Colitis ( UC ) is a chronic, relapsing and remitting inflammatory disease of the colon with characteristic symptoms including bloody stools , diarrhoea , urgency , incontinence , fatigue , mucus discharge , cramps . night time bowel movements and an increased frequency in bowel movements 
( Ungaro et al Lancet 2017 )


Part of conditions known as Inflammatory bowel disease ( IBD –

Klinefelter’s syndrome

Klinefelter’s syndrome is the most common sex chromosome disorder in man
 and a relatively common cause of male infertility and hypogonadism ( Anders Bojesen et al 2011 )


How common –Only men are affected First defined in 1942 by Harry Klinefelter in males who had small testes , gynaecomastia , and no ability for spermatogenesis ( Boston ,

Low phosphate

These figures may vary slightly between hospitals but < 0.8 mmol/ L is 
hypophosphataemia and < 0.3 mmol is considered to be severe


Role of phosphorus

Bone mineralisation ( needed for bone and teeth formation ) Cellular structural components ( various cellular metabolisms )
◘ For formation of phospholipids ,

Lung cancer

Lung cancer arises from the cells of the respiratory epithelium
They are broadly divided into 2 categories -
 Small cell lung cancer ( SLCL ) which is highly malignant tumour of the cells exhibiting neuroendocrine characteristics and accounts for 15 % of lung cancer cases
 Non-small cell lung cancer ( NSCLC ) constitute the majority ( 85 % ) of cases and are further subdivided into 3 groups –